Thursday, August 25, 2016

August 24, 2016 Earthquake in Italy

Photos: Associated Press

  Yesterday, a devastating 6.2 earthquake occurred in Central Italy causing the deaths of at least 247 people.  Shops, churches and medieval structures were flattened.   A series of aftershocks also occurred in Umbria,  LeMarche, and Lazio. The village of Amatrice has been flattened and completely destroyed. There has been a high level of aftershocks, and with electricity out, it has been difficult to contact emergency responders.    Accumoli, and Pescara del Tronto are also all but destroyed. Forty three hundred people are searching for survivors underneath collapsed buildings.

Rendering: US Plate Geological Survey/NY Times  This is the location of the quake with damage.

      I will update this post as more information is available. 

Sunday, August 14, 2016

Oral Rehydration Solutions for Various Animal Species


(Picture from: )

   I used to buy a commercial apple flavored electrolyte powder which could be added to water for horses. I usually used a gallon sized orange or lemon gatorade for alpacas, dogs or even ailing poultry.  I have been very lucky with my interventions with animals and many of my animals, whatever the species, live far beyond their normal life expectancies.   Lately though I have been doing some research.  The commercial apple flavored electrolyte mix for horses has gone up to fifty dollars for a large container. It is sold out in my area, and the livestock supply house where I buy the heavy bucket size says they may not be buying it again.  In addition, I have read that horse electrolytes may not been formulated in the manner that is best for alpacas. Even though they are mammals, other species do not need electrolytes balanced exactly as humans do. Also, giving sugar to other animal species (other than hummingbirds, of course) without a specific veterinary direction to do so can be risky. We also need to establish for each species when the use of a rehydration solution or electrolytes is indicated. Although some farmers leave an electrolyte water solution out for horses or alpacas all the time, many vets think that this may be a bad practice. It may cause tooth decay. It may allow bacterial growth in sugared water that is sitting all day, and it may attract flies, even the more dangerous borer variety. So we should define the conditions for each species under which we would use such things. Since we are planning in advance for such emergencies, you have time to consult your equine vet or your farm vet either during a routine visit you have already scheduled, or by talking to them online.

                  Rather than spending fifty dollars for a large container of apple horse electrolyte, you could gather the ingredients for your own. Place the boxed ingredients and a copy of the recipe in a large transparent freezer style bag and then mark it for the animal species for which it is intended. Since I have alpacas, horses, dogs, guinea fowl, chickens, ducks, cats, and sheep, some could be used interchangeably but many formulations should not. 

 Then, after you have created a species specific  rehydration kit, place it in a location where you can gather it at a moment's notice.  

Some electrolytes are best delivered to the animal in water, where others might get more of it when given as a top dress to their dry food, with water given nearby.

        Since this was one of my tasks this week, I established an electrolyte and rehydration kit for each species here, and then I placed it in a durable large plastic bag. Then I marked each bag with the species for which it is intended to be used. Then I placed each prepared bag in a rectangular plastic bin with a lid which came from Wal-Mart. Then I placed a piece of masking tape on the lid and the side of the box and marked it "Varietal species rehydration kits" When kept in a cool dry place with the component parts in original packaging, they should last for a considerable period of time, perhaps many years.

The benefits are as follows:

1. By creating rehydration packages for each species and placing them in a large freezer bag, you are saving a great deal of money over purchasing the prepared varieties.
2. You will know how to make such solutions for each animal species you have and be enabled to hydrate your animals in a more customized  fashion.
3. You will reexamine your own practices of hydration and have a better plan for hydration when indicated, not simply when it's hot.
4. On finding an animal with heat stress or another issue during hot weather, by having these packs pre-gathered, you are not only saving the time by not needing to run out and gather these things under what could be worse conditions than now, but you are going to be able to provide appropriate rehydration much more quickly than if your animal had to wait for you to return from a quick emergency trip. You will have the species specific recipe and the materials right in the plastic package.
5. Remember that very hot conditions may trigger the need for rehydration solutions, but that diarrhea necessitates at least a phone call to a veterinarian. Diarrhea is not normal and although it can indicate a simple change in diet, it can also indicate gastrointestinal worms, or a serious infectious disorder of some kind, which could require additional intervention often in terms of a drug, in addition to rehydration.

This is the unsweetened flavoring. It doesn't take much of this to flavor for horses or alpacas.  Sometimes, plain lemon juice works best.  This is great to have as a backup in your rehydration kit to add to one of the recipes here.

Animals who are too hot, too cold, under stress, or found in Winter with frozen water should receive assistance with rehydration.  Animals with diarrhea need to be provided with rehydration solution as well as plain water immediately, and then you need to call your vet.


Some people believe that their horse automatically requires electrolytes in hot weather. Vets say this is not always true.  A horse should always have access to a clean bucket of plain water, and should have access to salt. For many horses, this may be all you need to do. Generally having a lot of plain salt blocks available and having them in a protected plastic bag is a good plan. I try to stock up when they are on sale.
For a horse with diarrhea,exhaustion or excessive perspiration, they lose salt and water.  Again, find out what your equine vet's objectives are if this happens.

This is one home recipe for equine replacement of electrolytes:


This particular one is sugar free and ideal for a horse with insulin resistance

26 ounces of NON-iodized salt
22 ounces of Lite Salt (potassium)
2 Tablespoons of Epsom Salt
OPTIONAL: One half packet of unsugared unsweetened lemon Kool-aid
        (Some horses benefit from the flavoring)

This can be used as either a top dress to feed or added to a separate bucket of water.  If the horse is one of the few who do not like the taste, you may add lemon juice, 6 Tablespoons.



Some equine vets believe that in Summer, especially active horses may benefit from a bucket of plain water, and then this solution placed next to it.  This is helpful for horses who aren't fans or frequent users of a salt block.

    5 ounces of non-iodized salt added to

    5 gallons of water



Mix equal amounts of non-iodized salt with
                            Morton's or similar Lite Salt (which is potassium chloride)
in five gallons of water.
  ( In this method, your horse should also eat because most horse feed contains adequate magnesium  and calcium.)




Take a clean five gallon bucket.
Add equal amounts of non-iodized salt, Morton lite salt (potassium) and baking soda.
You may flavor with lemon juice.
Do not add sugar unless vet has ordered it for a specific reason.

This is a great hot weather supplement in addition to having a salt block and plain water available.

Some farms keep this available in Winter also, in a heated bucket.


Notes on alpaca hydration:  Although many of us have gotten away with using four or five scoops of a lemon gatorade powder in a five gallon bucket for alpacas at risk, vets tell us that gatorade is low in electrolytes and high in sugar for alpacas, and so the recipe above is superior for them.
Resorb, can also be used in emergencies. Check with your vet and his/her objectives. 


You may use the alpaca recipe above.  Please read the links below on sheep dehydration also.


You may use Gatorade solution so long as you are also providing plain water.   Resorb as reconstituted for humans will also work. The alpaca recipe would also be helpful.  However, a goat who is dehydrated is very sick indeed and requires veterinary input in order to rectify the underlying cause of the dehydration whether it be infectious or otherwise.


 Chickens, Ducks, Guineas, Doves, Pigeons, 

These animals should generally have an abundant and clean supply of water, year round.
Last year, a Texas chicken farmer told me that when it becomes hotter than 100 degrees F, he slightly salts the chicken feed for his chickens once time each morning.  I have been doing this here in Virginia, and I have not had any sudden hen deaths since.

If you find one of your birds injured, stressed or ill, they should still have abundant water and food, but they should also have available.

Bird Rehydrator         Gather the materials and bag in advance, but mix only when needed

1. Place one gallon of water in a clean bucket 
2. Add one tablespoon powdered sugar   (or plain sugar if that's what you have)
3. Add one teaspoon non-iodized table salt.
4. Add one teaspoon baking soda
5. Add 1/2 tsp. Morton lite salt (which is potassium)

  Most of the time no additional flavorings will be needed.  Lemon juice, one tsp could be added. 

Recommended United Kingdom Recipe for bird rehydration  (Structured in measurements most familiar to them.)

7g sodium chloride
5g sodium bicarbonate
3g potassium chloride
40g glucose
2 litres water

  It is not necessary and could be harmful to provide the electrolyte solution to birds who are well so save this recipe for the sick or stressed animals.

 Rehydration Solution for Dogs:

A dog who is rescued and looks slightly dry and is hungry, can be given lots of plain water and food.  Lemon gatorade can be offered in addition.   A dog with a more complex issue will need veterinary attendance.

Rehydration Solution for Cats:

Cat Rehydration Recipe #1:

Plain lemon gatorade in addition to a separate dish of water nearby will work for most cats.

Cat Recipe #2
This recipe is designed for cats in kidney failure who are having trouble holding on to potassium.
  • 1/4 cup lukewarm water
    (Use spring or filtered water to avoid chlorine and flouride.)
  • 2 Tablespoons raw honey
    (Raw honey has natural antibiotic properties.)
  • 3/8 Teaspoon sea salt
    (Table salt from the supermarket has sugar in it – [what, you haven’t read the label recently and noticed this?] – and is missing all the trace minerals available in a good quality sea salt.)
  • 1/8 Teaspoon potassium salt (365 mg)
    (Sometimes called “potassium chloride” and available in health food stores in powder form.  I use the NOW brand Potassium Chloride Powder and that’s the basis for this measurement.)
  • 1 Teaspoon fresh lemon juice
    (For a bit of vitamin C and to cut the sweetness.)
  • Enough water to make 2 full cups (16 ounces).
  • A glass bottle that will hold 2 cups of electrolyte liquid for storage purposes.
  • A 1-ounce brown dropper bottle for easy dispensing.
  • An extra dropper for dosing your cat so the dropper in the bottle isn’t contaminated.
  1. Put the raw honey into the warm water and stir.  I use a small wire whisk, but a fork will do as well.  You want to break up the honey and spread it through the water.
  2. Add the sea salt, potassium salt, and lemon juice.
  3. Put the mixture into the glass bottle and add enough water to make 2 full cups.
  4. Shake well.  This distributes the ingredients evenly throughout the liquid.
  5. Pour about an ounce of this into the dropper bottle.
  6. Refrigerate both bottles.
 Offer four times a day.
 A sick cat should be seen by a veterinarian as quickly as possible.
This recipe was obtained at:


More detail from veterinarians in dehydration treatment and assessment:

Information on Lamb Dehydration from a Veterinarian

Information on Sheep Care: 

Data on Pigeon Rescue:

DISCLAIMER:   This post is designed to allow an owner or animal enthusiast hydrate an animal while the vet is either on his way or while you are making arrangements to have your animal seen by one.   Dehydration is often a symptom of an infectious illness or a serious disorder. Unless you are absolutely certain as to a cause of dehydration do not simply treat for dehydration without getting a vet's input after initiating rehydration.

Saturday, July 23, 2016

Please See: " My Recollections of Tim Kaine"

Tim Kaine, his wife Ann Holton (far left) with Queen Elizabeth shaking the hand of a Mattaponi chief.   Photo was taken in 2007 when Kaine was governor of Virginia.   (Photo: yahoo)

  Politics so often spills over, or at times, vomits up over our plans that impact preparedness.  Some politicians have actually spurred families to prepare.

 Please read my post on another of my blogs:

My Recollections of Tim Kaine

Saturday, July 16, 2016

Why Happenings in Turkey Matter


(Photo: Tech. Sgt. William Gomez/Air Force)

   I know that many of you are wondering why I have not covered the tragedy in France, yet I am discussing the happenings in Turkey.  America is hearing plenty regarding the egregious attack on Nice which cost the lives of 84 people, 10 of them children, and injured 200. Many of these are still in critical condition. A lot of damage can be done with a nineteen ton refrigerator truck. Although my condolences go to France and the people of Nice, this is being covered by mainstream news. and the right information about Turkey may not be.

              Turkey is a member of NATO, and its Incirlik airbase is an important strategic location for us for operations which take place in the Middle East, especially against ISIS. It is a key staging area for attacks against the "so called Islamic State".  Instability in Turkey translates to fewer friends and less cooperation for us in the MIddle East. It also translates to more opportunities for ISIS.

               The coup yesterday was serious because it shakes stability of the region.  It's failure is also peculiar, despite the fact that Mr. Obama supports Erdogan.

              Today, one day after the failed coup attempt, news reports are indicating that Turkey has closed air space over its Incirlik Air Base effectively grounding US planes. All US military personnel are confined to the base.  Sadly, the stop in attacks against ISIS may allow the group to regroup.

             Furthermore, according to the Military Times, all US dependents currently in Turkey have been ordered to leave. This will impact at least seven hundred spouses and children.  I have also just heard that outside electricity to the Incirlik base has been cut.

              Please pray for stability for the region and safety for those embroiled in it. 

Update:  As of late July 17th, American operations at the Incirlik Air Base have resumed.

Turkey's Coup Has Failed

This is Friday night in Turkey.  This picture was taken by and is the property of REUTERS

       This is an update following yesterdays post concerning the coup in Turkey.  Both of the individuals I know in Turkey are safe.

                   According to BBC News, the coup in Turkey against Erdogan's government, has failed. More than 2800 soldiers including many high ranking have been arrested. One hundred and sixty one people have been killed and one thousand four hundred and forty have been injured. Erdogan is very likely to begin executing senior staff.   The official word is that the group that started the coup is unknown, however Erdogan rightly or wrongly believes a Muslim cleric Fethulah Gulen, a US based but powerful cleric is responsible. Others speculate that Russia thinks Erdogan has been in power too long.

                    Turkey is deeply divided and polarized over Erdogan's transformation of Turkey from a secular state to an Islamic one, and also over spillover from the Syrian war.  This is likely not to be the last coup in Turkey.


Friday, July 15, 2016

Prayers for Those in Turkey

 This post was written at 5 pm this date

  I have information from one of the people I know who is in the area that a coup is going on in Turkey.   There is shooting in the streets. Bank transactions are halted and ATMs don't work.  Aircraft and helicopters are in the sky.  Erdogan is attempting to flee by getting to and leaving from Attaturk Airport.   TRT Television is announcing a coup statement.  Soldiers are said to have taken the guns of the police.  The latest information is that Erdogan's party, the HQ AKP is surrounded.  Martial Law has been imposed and no one is permitted to leave Turkey.  The announcement from TRT television says, "
The President & government representatives have betrayed the country, created an autocracy, made legal system unworkable"

    The last entry I have received is that Erdogan has been detained.  Although this is said to be true, he is talking to CNN via telephone. He claims to be in Marmaris and he also claims still to be in control.

Although there is martial law, the borders are not yet closed. Erdogan is seeking asylum in Germany.  As of 6:30pm Eastern Standard time, his request has been denied.

Introducing Drumi by Yirego

This is Drumi, the foot powered washing machine.

                I don't yet have one of these, but I am excited about getting one.  I wanted to make all of you aware of it.  Once I get one, I will post a full review of the device.


                Drumi is a manual washing machine which washes five pounds of clothing, baby clothing, underwear, the days clothing, etc.  It uses a modest amount of water, soap, and in provides a ten minute leg work out as you pump the pedal in order to make it spin.  The US price is only $239.00 for the green device and presently the same price for one in silve rtone.   There is also a more expensive double sized device.

                       Drumi by Yirego was originally developed for those in third world countries who might not have access to the infrastructure and electricity necessary to do laundry other than hand washing.  However, this has multiple uses for almost everyone.  This is useful for preppers and most other people so that we may do laundry during power outages.  This is also helpful to people with babies because sometimes you must do laundry, but don't really have an entire load for a standard machine.  If you are a family without a washing machine, a Drumi will help to prevent some of those trips to the laundromat. You could conceivably go less often. 
                      Drumi is recommended for personal clothing, but is not large enough to do bed sheets and therefore it is not recommended for that purpose.   Each load requires only 2.6 gallons of water, which translates to ten liters.  It takes about ten minutes to run an entire load. The manufacturer says that it's about three minutes for a wash, two minutes for a rinse and one minute for a spin.  When finished, you release a lever which drains the water.  After spinning, the clothes are damp and should be hung to dry.

                     The Drumi is both compact and portable.  You could take one on vacation because it's only twenty pounds. You could take one camping.  You could keep one in the house for power outages.  This could be the best family new baby gift out there.  It is an excellent addition to your bug out location, or to a summer cottage.

                      The company who makes this item says you can use any detergent, however I would recommend one that is not too super sudsy.  I like Woolite or a generic substitute for Woolite for my handwashing and for portable washing machines for preppers.

                      One can order one now for an anticipate early 2017 delivery.  If you aren't thrilled, you can return the item for 100% money refund within the first 30 days.    I cannot wait to get one !